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Gen Comp Endocrinol November 1, 2001; 124 (2): 236-45.
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Cloning of two thyrotropin-releasing hormone receptor subtypes from a lower vertebrate (Catostomus commersoni): functional expression, gene structure, and evolution.

Harder S , Dammann O , Buck F , Zwiers H , Lederis K , Richter D , Bruhn TO .

A PCR approach was used to clone thyrotropin-releasing hormone receptors (TRH-R) from the brain and anterior pituitary of the teleost Catostomus commersoni (cc), the white sucker. Two distinct TRH-R, designated ccTRH-R1 and ccTRH-R2, were identified. ccTRH-R1 was similar to mammalian TRH-R of the subtype 1, whereas ccTRH-R2 exhibited the highest identity (61% at the amino acid level) with the recently discovered rat TRH-R2. It is postulated that ccTRH-R2 and rat TRH-R2 are members of the same TRH-R subfamily 2. Functional expression of ccTRH receptors in human embryonic kidney cells and in Xenopus laevis oocytes demonstrated that both ccTRH receptors were fully functional in both systems. Oocytes expressing either receptor responded to the application of TRH by an induction of membrane chloride currents, indicating that ccTRH-R of both subtypes are coupled to the inositol phosphate/calcium pathway. The analysis of genomic clones revealed, for the first time, both similarities and differences in the structure of TRH-R subtype genes. Both ccTRH-R genes contained an intron within the coding region at the beginning of transmembrane domain (TM) 6. The position of this intron is highly conserved, as it was found at an identical position in the human TRH-R1 gene. The ccTRH-R2 gene contained an additional intron at the end of TM 3 that was not found in any of the TRH-R1 genes identified so far. The analysis of the gene structure of ccTRH-R and the amino acid sequence comparisons of mammalian and teleost TRH-R of both subtypes suggest that TRH receptors have been highly conserved during the course of vertebrate evolution. A common ancestral TRH receptor gene that could be found much earlier in evolution, possibly in invertebrates, might be the origin of ccTRH-R genes.

PubMed ID: 11703088
Article link: Gen Comp Endocrinol

Species referenced: Xenopus laevis
Genes referenced: trh