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XB-ART-8881
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A June 19, 2001; 98 (13): 7348-53.
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Timing of metamorphosis and the onset of the negative feedback loop between the thyroid gland and the pituitary is controlled by type II iodothyronine deiodinase in Xenopus laevis.

Huang H , Cai L , Remo BF , Brown DD .


Abstract
Two important features of amphibian metamorphosis are the sequential response of tissues to different concentrations of thyroid hormone (TH) and the development of the negative feedback loop between the pituitary and the thyroid gland that regulates TH synthesis by the thyroid gland. At the climax of metamorphosis in Xenopus laevis (when the TH level is highest), the ratio of the circulating precursor thyroxine (T4) to the active form 3,5,3''-triiodothyronine (T3) in the blood is many times higher than it is in tissues. This difference is because of the conversion of T4 to T3 in target cells of the tadpole catalyzed by the enzyme type II iodothyronine deiodinase (D2) and the local effect (cell autonomy) of this activity. Limb buds and tails express D2 early and late in metamorphosis, respectively, correlating with the time that these organs undergo TH-induced change. T(3) is required to complete metamorphosis because the peak concentration of T4 that is reached at metamorphic climax cannot induce the final morphological changes. At the climax of metamorphosis, D2 expression is activated specifically in the anterior pituitary cells that express the genes for thyroid-stimulating hormone but not in the cells that express proopiomelanocortin. Physiological concentrations of T3 but not T4 can suppress thyrotropin subunit beta gene expression. The timing and the remarkable specificity of D2 expression in the thyrotrophs of the anterior pituitary coupled with the requirement for locally synthesized T3 strongly support a role for D2 in the onset of the negative feedback loop at the climax of metamorphosis.

PubMed ID: 11404476
PMC ID: PMC34671
Article link: Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A


Species referenced: Xenopus laevis
Genes referenced: dio2 lhb pomc tshb


Article Images: [+] show captions
References [+] :
Auf dem Brinke, Subcellular localization of thyroxine-5-deiodinase in rat liver. 1980, Pubmed