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Mol Cell Biol 1989 Apr 01;94:1682-90. doi: 10.1128/mcb.9.4.1682-1690.1989.
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The Xenopus laevis U2 gene distal sequence element (enhancer) is composed of four subdomains that can act independently and are partly functionally redundant.

Tebb G , Mattaj IW .

The sequences involved in enhancement of transcription of the Xenopus U2 small nuclear RNA gene by the distal sequence element (DSE) of its promoter were analyzed in detail by microinjection of mutant genes into Xenopus oocytes. The DSE was shown to be roughly 60 base pairs long. Within this region, four motifs were found to contribute to DSE function: an ATGCAAAT octamer sequence, an SpI binding site, and two additional motifs which, since they are related in sequence, may bind the same transcription factor. These motifs were named D2 (for DSE; U2). Both the octamer sequence and the SpI site bound nuclear factors in vitro, but no factor binding to the D2 motifs was detected. All four elements were independently capable of enhancing transcription of the U2 gene to some extent. Furthermore, when assayed under both competitive and noncompetitive conditions, the individual units of the DSE displayed functional redundancy.

PubMed ID: 2657402
PMC ID: PMC362587
Article link: Mol Cell Biol

Species referenced: Xenopus laevis
Genes referenced: dse

References [+] :
Ares, Orientation-dependent transcriptional activator upstream of a human U2 snRNA gene. 1985, Pubmed, Xenbase