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Cell 1996 Aug 23;864:599-606. doi: 10.1016/s0092-8674(00)80133-6.
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The Spemann organizer signal noggin binds and inactivates bone morphogenetic protein 4.

Zimmerman LB , De Jesús-Escobar JM , Harland RM .

Signals released by the Spemann organizer of the amphibian gastrula can directly induce neural tissue from ectoderm and can dorsalize ventral mesoderm to form muscle. The secreted polypeptide noggin mimics these activities and is expressed at the appropriate time and place to participate in the organizer signal. Neural induction and mesoderm dorsalization are antagonized by bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), which induce epidermis and ventral mesoderm instead. Here we report that noggin protein binds BMP4 with high affinity and can abolish BMP4 activity by blocking binding to cognate cell-surface receptors. These data suggest that noggin secreted by the organizer patterns the embryo by interrupting BMP signaling.

PubMed ID: 8752214
Article link: Cell
Grant support: [+]

Species referenced: Xenopus laevis
Genes referenced: bmp4 nog