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EMBO J 1986 May 01;55:987-95. doi: 10.1002/j.1460-2075.1986.tb04313.x.
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Human U2 small nuclear RNA genes contain an upstream enhancer.

Mangin M , Ares M , Weiner AM .

The human U1 and U2 snRNA genes lack an obvious TATA box, but are extremely powerful RNA polymerase II transcription units capable of accurately initiating at least one transcript per gene every 2-4 s. We have investigated the location of cis-acting regulatory elements within the flanking sequences of human U2 and U1 genes. By introducing marked human U2 genes into HeLa cells on SV40- and pUC13-based vectors, we found that transient expression of the marked U2 gene did not require the SV40 enhancer. The U2 promoter element responsible for SV40 enhancer-independent U2 expression was localized within the 5'-flanking sequence of the gene, and shown to stimulate transcription from the U2 basal promoter in an orientation- and position-independent fashion. In addition, the U2 element could be functionally replaced by either the SV40 enhancer or by distal sequences from the human U1 promoter. We conclude that the human U2 and U1 genes contain functionally equivalent enhancer elements. Moreover, since the human U2 enhancer sequences resemble the Xenopus U2 enhancer-like element, enhancers appear to be a general feature of vertebrate snRNA promoter structure.

PubMed ID: 3720730
PMC ID: PMC1166892
Article link: EMBO J
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References [+] :
Ares, Orientation-dependent transcriptional activator upstream of a human U2 snRNA gene. 1985, Pubmed, Xenbase