XB-ART-10371J Biol Chem 2000 Dec 01;27548:37414-22. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M007241200.
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Role of Cl- in electrogenic Na+-coupled cotransporters GAT1 and SGLT1.
We have investigated the functional role of Cl(-) in the human Na(+)/Cl(-)/gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and Na(+)/glucose cotransporters (GAT1 and SGLT1, respectively) expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes. Substrate-evoked steady-state inward currents were examined in the presence and absence of external Cl(-). Replacement of Cl(-) by gluconate or 2-(N-morpholino)ethanesulfonic acid decreased the apparent affinity of GAT1 and SGLT1 for Na(+) and the organic substrate. In the absence of substrate, GAT1 and SGLT1 exhibited charge movements that manifested as pre-steady-state current transients. Removal of Cl(-) shifted the voltage dependence of charge movements to more negative potentials, with apparent affinity constants (K(0.5)) for Cl(-) of 21 and 115 mm for SGLT1 and GAT1, respectively. The maximum charge moved and the apparent valence were not altered. GAT1 stoichiometry was determined by measuring GABA-evoked currents and the unidirectional influx of (36)Cl(-), (22)Na(+), or [(3)H]GABA. Uptake of each GABA molecule was accompanied by inward movement of 2 positive charges, which was entirely accounted for by the influx of Na(+) in the presence or absence of Cl(-). Thus, the GAT1 stoichiometry was 2Na(+):1GABA. However, Cl(-) was transported by GAT1 because the inward movement of 2 positive charges was accompanied by the influx of one Cl(-) ion, suggesting unidirectional influx of 2Na(+):1Cl(-):1GABA per transport cycle. Activation of forward Na(+)/Cl(-)/GABA transport evoked (36)Cl(-) efflux and was blocked by the inhibitor SKF 89976A. These data suggest a Cl(-)/Cl(-) exchange mechanism during the GAT1 transport cycle. In contrast, Cl(-) was not transported by SGLT1. Thus, in both GAT1 and SGLT1, Cl(-) modulates the kinetics of cotransport by altering Na(+) affinity, but does not contribute to net charge transported per transport cycle. We conclude that Cl(-) dependence per se is not a useful criterion to classify Na(+) cotransporters.
PubMed ID: 10973981
Article link: J Biol Chem
Species referenced: Xenopus laevis
Genes referenced: slc5a1 slc5a1.2 slc6a1