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Dev Biol 1998 Jul 01;1991:72-9. doi: 10.1006/dbio.1998.8905.
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A constitutive mutation of ALK5 disrupts cardiac looping and morphogenesis in mice.

Charng MJ , Frenkel PA , Lin Q , Yamada M , Schwartz RJ , Olson EN , Overbeek P , Schneider MD , Yumada M .

TGF beta family members are implicated in cardiac organogenesis, growth control, and positional information, including the direction of cardiac looping. However, genetic analysis of TGF beta signaling in mice has been confounded, in some cases, by noncardiac and generalized defects. Hence, deciphering TGF beta function in myocardium would benefit from cardiac-restricted mutations. We developed a constitutively activated type I receptor, ALK5L193A,P194A,T204D, and directed it to embryonic myocardium in transgenic mice. Expression of the activated ALK5 gene arrests looping morphogenesis and causes a linear, dilated, hypoplastic heart tube, despite normal expression of Nkx2.5 and dHAND, cardiogenic transcription factors whose absence provokes a similar phenotype. Ventricular hypoplasia was associated with precocious induction of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, p21. Thus, an ALK5-sensitive pathway mediates looping, perhaps through control of cardiac myocyte proliferation.

PubMed ID: 9676193
Article link: Dev Biol

Species referenced: Xenopus
Genes referenced: cdkn1a hand2 nsg1 tgfbr1