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Dev Dyn 2005 Aug 01;2334:1444-53. doi: 10.1002/dvdy.20484.
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Joint development in Xenopus laevis and induction of segmentations in regenerating froglet limb (spike).

Satoh A , Suzuki M , Amano T , Tamura K , Ide H .

In Xenopus laevis, amputation of the adult limb results in the formation of a simple (hypomorphic) spike-like structure without joints, although tadpole limb bud regenerates complete limb pattern. The expression of some joint marker genes was examined in limb development and regeneration. Bmp-4 and gdf-5 were expressed and sox-9 expression was decreased in the joint region. Although developing cartilages were well-organized and had bmp-4 expressing perichondrocytes, the spike cartilage did not have such a structure, but only showed sparse bmp-4 expression. Application of BMP4-soaked beads to the spike led to the induction of a joint-like structure. These results suggest that the lack of joints in the spike is due to the deficiency of the accumulation of the cells that express bmp-4. Improvement of regeneration in the Xenopus adult limb that we report here for the first time will give us important insights into epimorphic regeneration.

PubMed ID: 15977182
Article link: Dev Dyn

Species referenced: Xenopus laevis
Genes referenced: bmp4 col1a1 col2a1 gdf5 sox9
Antibodies: Col2a1 Ab3 Smad1 Ab7

Phenotypes: Xla Wt + forelimb amputation (Fig 1. D, E) [+]

Article Images: [+] show captions