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Pigment Cell Res 1987 Jan 01;11:28-36. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0749.1987.tb00531.x.
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Differentiation of neural crest cells of Xenopus laevis in clonal culture.

Akira E , Ide H .

Clonal cultures were performed with the use of neural crest cells and their derivatives, chromatophores, from Xenopus laevis in order to elucidate the state of commitment in early embryogenesis. Neural crest cells that outgrew from neural tube explants were isolated and plated at clonal density. Cloned neural crest cells differentiated and gave rise to colonies that consisted of 1) only melanophores, 2) only xanthophores, or 3) melanophores and xanthophores. Xanthophores and iridophores, which differentiated in vitro, were also isolated and cloned. Cloned xanthophores proliferated in a stable fashion and did not lose their properties. On the other hand, cloned iridophores converted into melanophores as they proliferated. These results suggest that there is heterogeneity in the state of commitment of neural crest cells immediately after migration with regard to chromatophore differentiation and that iridophore determination is relatively labile (at least in vitro), whereas melanophore and xanthophore phenotypes are stable.

PubMed ID: 3507660
Article link: Pigment Cell Res