XB-ART-35777EMBO J 2007 Jun 06;2611:2768-76. doi: 10.1113/jphysiol.2006.125963.
Show Gene links Show Anatomy links
Spinophilin/neurabin reciprocally regulate signaling intensity by G protein-coupled receptors.
Spinophilin (SPL) and neurabin (NRB) are structurally similar scaffolding proteins with several protein binding modules, including actin and PP1 binding motifs and PDZ and coiled-coil domains. SPL also binds regulators of G protein signaling (RGS) proteins and the third intracellular loop (3iL) of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) to reduce the intensity of Ca(2+) signaling by GPCRs. The role of NRB in Ca(2+) signaling is not known. In the present work, we used biochemical and functional assays in model systems and in SPL(-/-) and NRB(-/-) mice to show that SPL and NRB reciprocally regulate Ca(2+) signaling by GPCRs. Thus, SPL and NRB bind all members of the R4 subfamily of RGS proteins tested (RGS1, RGS2, RGS4, RGS16) and GAIP. By contract, SPL, but not NRB, binds the 3iL of the GPCRs alpha(1B)-adrenergic (alpha(1B)AR), dopamine, CCKA, CCKB and the muscarinic M3 receptors. Coexpression of SPL or NRB with the alpha(1B)AR in Xenopus oocytes revealed that SPL reduces, whereas NRB increases, the intensity of Ca(2+) signaling by alpha(1B)AR. Accordingly, deletion of SPL in mice enhanced binding of RGS2 to NRB and Ca(2+) signaling by alphaAR, whereas deletion of NRB enhanced binding of RGS2 to SPL and reduced Ca(2+) signaling by alphaAR. This was due to reciprocal modulation by SPL and NRB of the potency of RGS2 to inhibit Ca(2+) signaling by alphaAR. These findings suggest a novel mechanism of regulation of GPCR-mediated Ca(2+) signaling in which SPL/NRB forms a functional pair of opposing regulators that modulates Ca(2+) signaling intensity by GPCRs by determining the extent of inhibition by the R4 family of RGS proteins.
PubMed ID: 17464283
PMC ID: PMC1888664
Article link: EMBO J
Species referenced: Xenopus
Genes referenced: actl6a gprc6a npy4r ppp1r9a ppp1r9b rgs1 rgs16 rgs19 rgs2 rgs4
References [+] :
Allen, Spinophilin, a novel protein phosphatase 1 binding protein localized to dendritic spines. 1997, Pubmed