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Dev Biol 2004 May 15;2692:552-66. doi: 10.1016/j.ydbio.2004.01.018.
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Analysis of Spemann organizer formation in Xenopus embryos by cDNA macroarrays.

Wessely O , Kim JI , Geissert D , Tran U , De Robertis EM .

The understanding of vertebrate development has greatly benefited from the study of gastrulation in the Xenopus embryo. Over the years, the molecular dissection of the Spemann organizer has proven to be a very fruitful source for gene discovery. Here, we report a comprehensive screen of gene expression in the Xenopus gastrula using cDNA macroarrays. Nylon filters containing more than 72000 cDNAs from a gastrula stage library were hybridized with differential probes from embryos in which organizer induction had been inhibited by reducing Nodal-related or maternal beta-Catenin signaling. Combining the changes in gene expression levels caused by these two major signaling pathways in a single graph identified both known and novel dorsoventral regulated genes. The most highly enriched organizer-specific genes were the secreted molecules chordin and Xnr-3, followed by the transmembrane protein paraxial protocadherin (PAPC). Ventral-specific abundant cDNAs included S10-40-H5, members of the Hyaluronan synthase family, Xvent-2 and XFD2/FoxI1. A differential probe of dorsal and ventral lips identified many more organizer-specific cDNAs than the screens inhibiting Nodal-related and beta-Catenin signaling, suggesting that additional, as yet uncharacterized signaling pathways, contribute to organizer formation. Finally, extension of this approach to the blastula preorganizer signaling center identified the transcription factor pintallavis/FoxA2 as a new preorganizer component.

PubMed ID: 15110719
Article link: Dev Biol
Grant support: [+]

Species referenced: Xenopus
Genes referenced: cer1 chrd.1 cripto.3 foxa2 foxa4 foxi1 foxi4.2 gsc has-rs nodal nodal1 nodal3.1 nudt22 pcdh8 pcdh8.2 prmt1 psmd6 ptmap12 sia1 ventx2.2

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