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Dev Growth Differ 2009 May 01;514:411-27. doi: 10.1111/j.1440-169X.2009.01100.x.
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Molecular features of thyroid hormone-regulated skin remodeling in Xenopus laevis during metamorphosis.

Suzuki K , Machiyama F , Nishino S , Watanabe Y , Kashiwagi K , Kashiwagi A , Yoshizato K .

Amphibian body skin provides an opportunity to investigate the molecular mechanism of thyroid hormone (TH)-dependent organ remodeling during metamorphosis. Global gene expression changes in the TH-dependent body skin remodeling were studied with microarray analysis. We identified 401 genes that were differentially expressed more than fourfold for 7 days after TH-treatment. As expected, larval- and adult-type keratin genes were significantly inactivated and activated, respectively. The expression changes of the Gene Ontology annotated genes demonstrated significant correlation with the morphological and physiological changes in body skin metamorphosis. The 'transcription and proteolysis' category genes were first upregulated 1 day after TH-treatment. Subsequently, the 'cell cycle' category genes were activated at 3 days. The 'defense response' and 'immune response' category genes were the late TH-response genes, which were downregulated and upregulated at 5 and 7 days, respectively. From these genes, adult-type keratin-c (xak-c) gene was selected as a suitable gene to visually monitor the emergence of adult-type epidermal cells during skin remodeling, because the gene is specifically expressed in adult epidermal basal cells. We generated enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP)-transgenic Xenopus laevis driven by the promoter of xak-c gene. The keratin promoter faithfully expressed the EGFP gene in adult-type basal cells. Spatial and temporal EGFP-fluorescence patterns of filial 1 (F1)-offspring tadpoles visually demonstrated an event of sequential replacement of larval keratinocytes with the newly generated adult counterparts.

PubMed ID: 19382937
Article link: Dev Growth Differ

Species referenced: Xenopus laevis
Genes referenced: amelx atp12a capn8.1 cnfn.1 fosl2 higd1a klf9 krt12.5 krt12.6 krt51 krt55 krt62 krt78.6 krt78.7 mmp1 mmp11 mmp13l muc19 pgla rdd2 rdd4 rpl8 thdl17 thdl18 thdl20 thibz thop1 thra thrb tm4sf1 XB5922676 xt6l
Antibodies: Xak-c Ab1 krt62 Ab1

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