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Biochem Cell Biol 2006 Apr 01;842:167-77. doi: 10.1139/o05-175.
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Cloning and developmental characterization of Xenopus laevis membrane type-3 matrix metalloproteinase (MT3-MMP).

Hammoud L , Walsh LA , Damjanovski S .

Proper extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling, mediated by matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), is crucial for the development and survival of multicellular organisms. Full-length Xenopus laevis membrane type-3 matrix metallo proteinase (MT3-MMP) was amplified by PCR and cloned from a stage 28 Xenopus head cDNA library. A comparison of the derived Xenopus MT3-MMP protein sequence to that of other vertebrates revealed 86% identity with human and mouse and 85% identity with chicken. The expression profile of MT3-MMP was examined during Xenopus embryogenesis: MT3-MMP transcripts were first detected at the later stages of development and were localized to dorsal and anterior structures. During metamorphosis and in the adult frog, MT3-MMP expression was restricted to specific tissues and organs. Treatment of Xenopus embryos with lithium chloride (LiCl), ultraviolet irradiation (UV), or retinoic acid (RA) revealed that MT3-MMP levels increased with LiCl-dorsalizing treatments and decreased with UV-ventralizing and RA-anterior neural truncating treatments. Overexpression of MT3-MMP through RNA injections led to dose-dependent developmental abnormalities and death. Moreover, MT3-MMP overexpression resulted in neural and head structure abnormalities, as well as truncated axes. Taken together, these results indicate that MT3-MMP expression in Xenopus is spatially and temporally restricted. Furthermore, deregulation of MT3-MMP during early embryogenesis has detrimental effects on development.

PubMed ID: 16609697
Article link: Biochem Cell Biol

Species referenced: Xenopus laevis
Genes referenced: mmp11 mmp16

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