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Dev Dyn 2006 Jul 01;2357:1761-76. doi: 10.1002/dvdy.20816.
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Differential role of 14-3-3 family members in Xenopus development.

Lau JM , Wu C , Muslin AJ .

The 14-3-3 proteins are intracellular dimeric phosphoserine/threonine binding molecules that participate in signal transduction, checkpoint control, nutrient sensing, and cell survival pathways. Previous work established that 14-3-3 proteins are required in early Xenopus laevis development by modulating fibroblast growth factor signaling. Although this general requirement for 14-3-3 proteins in Xenopus early embryogenesis is established, there is no information about the specific role of individual 14-3-3 genes. Botanical studies previously demonstrated functional specificity among 14-3-3 genes during plant development. In this study, an antisense morpholino oligo microinjection approach was used to characterize the requirement for six specific 14-3-3 family members in Xenopus embryogenesis. Microinjection experiments followed by Western blot analysis showed that morpholinos reduced specific 14-3-3 protein levels. Embryos lacking specific 14-3-3 isoforms displayed unique phenotypic defects. In particular, reduction of 14-3-3 tau (tau) protein, and to a lesser extent, 14-3-3 epsilon (epsilon), resulted in embryos with prominent gastrulation and axial patterning defects and reduced mesodermal marker gene expression. In contrast, reduction of 14-3-3 zeta (zeta) protein caused no obvious phenotypic abnormalities. Reduction of 14-3-3 gamma (gamma) protein resulted in eye defects without gastrulation abnormalities. Therefore, individual 14-3-3 genes have separable functions in vertebrate embryonic development.

PubMed ID: 16607644
Article link: Dev Dyn
Grant support: [+]

Species referenced: Xenopus laevis
Genes referenced: chrd ednra kit mapk1 mapt myc pax6 tbxt ywhab ywhae ywhag ywhah ywhaq ywhaz
Antibodies: Mapk1 Ab8
Morpholinos: ywhab MO3 ywhae MO3 ywhae MO4 ywhag MO1 ywhah MO3 ywhaq MO3 ywhaq MO4 ywhaz MO2

Article Images: [+] show captions