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Development 2012 Aug 01;13916:2988-98. doi: 10.1242/dev.078675.
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The protein kinase MLTK regulates chondrogenesis by inducing the transcription factor Sox6.

Suzuki T , Kusakabe M , Nakayama K , Nishida E .

Sox9 acts together with Sox5 or Sox6 as a master regulator for chondrogenesis; however, the inter-relationship among these transcription factors remains unclear. Here, we show that the protein kinase MLTK plays an essential role in the onset of chondrogenesis through triggering the induction of Sox6 expression by Sox9. We find that knockdown of MLTK in Xenopus embryos results in drastic loss of craniofacial cartilages without defects in neural crest development. We also find that Sox6 is specifically induced during the onset of chondrogenesis, and that the Sox6 induction is inhibited by MLTK knockdown. Remarkably, Sox6 knockdown phenocopies MLTK knockdown. Moreover, we find that ectopic expression of MLTK induces Sox6 expression in a Sox9-dependent manner. Our data suggest that p38 and JNK pathways function downstream of MLTK during chondrogenesis. These results identify MLTK as a novel key regulator of chondrogenesis, and reveal its action mechanism in chondrocyte differentiation during embryonic development.

PubMed ID: 22764049
Article link: Development

Species referenced: Xenopus laevis
Genes referenced: acan foxd3 grap2 map3k20 mapk14 mapk8 matn1 myc sox5 sox6 sox9 twist1
Morpholinos: map3k20 MO1 sox5 MO1 sox6 MO1 sox9 MO1

GEO Series: GSE33767: NCBI

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