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Cilia 2012 Aug 01;11:13. doi: 10.1186/2046-2530-1-13.
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Ciliary and non-ciliary expression and function of PACRG during vertebrate development.

Thumberger T , Hagenlocher C , Tisler M , Beyer T , Tietze N , Schweickert A , Feistel K , Blum M .

UNLABELLED: BACKGROUND: Park2-co-regulated gene (PACRG) is evolutionarily highly conserved from green algae to mammals. In Chlamydomonas and trypanosomes, the PACRG protein associates with flagella. Loss of PACRG results in shortened or absent flagella. In mouse the PACRG protein is required for spermatogenesis. The purpose of the present study was to analyze (1) the expression patterns of PACRG during vertebrate embryogenesis, and (2) whether the PACRG protein was required for left-right (LR) axis specification through cilia-driven leftward flow in Xenopus laevis. METHODS: PACRG cDNAs were cloned and expression was analyzed during early embryonic development of Xenopus, mouse, rabbit and zebrafish. Antisense morpholino oligonucleotide (MO) mediated gene knockdown was applied in Xenopus to investigate LR development at the level of tissue morphology, leftward flow and asymmetric marker gene expression, using timelapse videography, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and whole-mount in situ hybridization. Results were statistically evaluated using Wilcoxon paired and χ2 tests. RESULTS: PACRG mRNA expression was found in cells and tissues harboring cilia throughout the vertebrates. Highly localized expression was also detected in the brain. During early development, PACRG was specifically localized to epithelia where leftward flow arises, that is, the gastrocoel roof plate (GRP) in Xenopus, the posterior notochord (PNC) in mammals and Kupffer's vesicle (KV) in zebrafish. Besides its association with ciliary axonemes, subcellular localization of PACRG protein was found around the nucleus and in a spotty pattern in the cytoplasm. A green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusion construct preferentially labeled cilia, rendering PACRG a versatile marker for live imaging. Loss-of-function in the frog resulted dose dependently in LR, neural tube closure and gastrulation defects, representing ciliary and non-ciliary functions of PACRG. CONCLUSIONS: The PACRG protein is a novel essential factor of cilia in Xenopus.

PubMed ID: 23351225
PMC ID: PMC3555705
Article link: Cilia

Species referenced: Xenopus laevis
Genes referenced: foxj1.2 pacrg parg rho tnfsf10
Antibodies: Pacrg Ab1
Morpholinos: pacrg MO1

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References [+] :
Bacci, Intralaminar thalamic nuclei lesions: widespread impact on dopamine denervation-mediated cellular defects in the rat basal ganglia. 2004, Pubmed