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J Comp Neurol 2014 Apr 01;5225:1102-31. doi: 10.1002/cne.23471.
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Characterization of the hypothalamus of Xenopus laevis during development. II. The basal regions.

Domínguez L , González A , Moreno N .

The expression patterns of conserved developmental regulatory transcription factors and neuronal markers were analyzed in the basal hypothalamus of Xenopus laevis throughout development by means of combined immunohistochemical and in situ hybridization techniques. The connectivity of the main subdivisions was investigated by in vitro tracing techniques with dextran amines. The basal hypothalamic region is topologically rostral to the basal diencephalon and is composed of the tuberal (rostral) and mammillary (caudal) subdivisions, according to the prosomeric model. It is dorsally bounded by the optic chiasm and the alar hypothalamus, and caudally by the diencephalic prosomere p3. The tuberal hypothalamus is defined by the expression of Nkx2.1, xShh, and Isl1, and rostral and caudal portions can be distinguished by the distinct expression of Otp rostrally and Nkx2.2 caudally. In the mammillary region the xShh/Nkx2.1 combination defined the rostral mammillary area, expressing Nkx2.1, and the caudal retromammillary area, expressing xShh. The expression of xLhx1, xDll4, and Otp in the mammillary area and Isl1 in the tuberal region highlights the boundary between the two basal hypothalamic territories. Both regions are strongly connected with subpallial regions, especially those conveying olfactory/vomeronasal information, and also possess abundant intrahypothalamic connections. They show reciprocal connections with the diencephalon (mainly the thalamus), project to the midbrain tectum, and are bidirectionally related to the rhombencephalon. These results illustrate that the basal hypothalamus of anurans shares many features of specification, regionalization, and hodology with amniotes, reinforcing the idea of a basic bauplan in the organization of this prosencephalic region in all tetrapods.

PubMed ID: 24122702
Article link: J Comp Neurol

Species referenced: Xenopus laevis
Genes referenced: acta4 dlx2 isl1 nkx2-1 nkx2-2 otp pax7 shh sst.1 tub
Antibodies: GABA Ab2 Isl1/2 Ab1 Nkx2-1 Ab5 Nkx2-2 Ab1 Otp Ab1 Pax7 Ab1 Som Ab1 Th Ab1

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