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J Morphol 1995 Nov 01;2262:189-212. doi: 10.1002/jmor.1052260207.
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Distribution of cranial and rostral spinal nerves in tadpoles of the frog Discoglossus pictus (Discoglossidae).

Schlosser G , Roth G .

We studied the peripheral nervous system of early tadpoles of the frog Discoglossus pictus using whole-mount immunohistochemistry. Double-labeling of muscles and nerves allowed us to determine the innervation of all cranial muscles supplied by the trigeminal, facial, glossopharyngeal, vagal, and hypoglossal nerves. The gross anatomical pattern of visceral, cutaneous, and lateral-line innervation was also assessed. Most muscles of the visceral arches are exclusively supplied by posttrematic rami of the corresponding branchiomeric nerves, the only exceptions being some ventral muscles (intermandibular, interhyoid, and subarcual rectus muscles). In the mandibular arch, the pattern of motor ramules of the trigeminal nerve prefigures in a condensed form the adult pattern, but the muscles of the hyoid arch are innervated by ramules of the facial nerve in a pattern that differs from that of postmetamorphic frogs. With respect to the nerves of the branchial arches, pretrematic visceral rami, typical of other gnathostomes, are absent in D. pictus. Instead, we find a separate series of posttrematic profundal visceral rami. Pharyngeal rami of all branchial nerves contribute to Jacobson's anastomosis. We provide a detailed description of the lateral-line innervation and describe a new ramus of the middle lateral-line nerve (ramus suprabranchialis). We confirm the presence of a first spinal nerve and its contribution to the hypoglossal nerve in D. pictus tadpoles.

PubMed ID: 7473767
Article link: J Morphol