XB-ART-52Life Sci 2006 Nov 02;7923:2165-71. doi: 10.1016/j.lfs.2006.07.013.
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Effects of bisphenol A on thyroid hormone-dependent up-regulation of thyroid hormone receptor alpha and beta and down-regulation of retinoid X receptor gamma in Xenopus tail culture.
We investigated effects of different concentrations (10(-7) - 10(-5) M) of bisphenol A (BPA), which is known as an estrogenic and anti-thyroid hormonal endocrine disrupter, on the expression of thyroid hormone receptor (TR) alpha and beta and retinoid X receptor (RXR) gamma mRNA in tails of stage 52-54 Xenopus tadpoles in organ culture in the presence or absence of different concentrations of triiodo-thyronine (T(3)). In the absence of T(3), BPA at any concentration examined did not show remarkable effects on tail length but blocked 10(-7) M T(3)-induced tail resorption in a concentration-dependent manner. Semi-quantitative analyses of TRalpha and TRbeta mRNAs by RT-PCR in the tail specimens indicated that BPA shows an apparent antagonistic effect towards the receptors and reduced their mRNA levels relative to controls. When administered together with 10(-7) M T(3), the antagonistic effects of BPA were detected more clearly and dose-dependently. While BPA prevented the autoinduction of both TRalpha and TRbeta genes by T(3), the effect was less marked on TRalpha than on TRbeta. BPA also moderately suppressed RXRgamma gene expression. Gene expression of RXRgamma, a partner for heterodimer formation of TRs, was supressed by T(3) alone and also by BPA alone, but no additive effects were observed so far as studied. The present study indicates that a relatively low concentration of BPA, 10(-7) M, as compared with those examined previously (10(-5) to 10(-4) M) by us and other investigators, acts as an antagonist of T(3) through suppression of TRalpha and TRbeta gene expression in Xenopus tail in culture.
PubMed ID: 16905155
Article link: Life Sci
Species referenced: Xenopus laevis
Genes referenced: rxrg thra thrb