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Dev Biol 2017 Jun 15;4262:245-254. doi: 10.1016/j.ydbio.2016.06.034.
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Noggin is required for first pharyngeal arch differentiation in the frog Xenopus tropicalis.

Young JJ , Kjolby RAS , Wu G , Wong D , Hsu SW , Harland RM .

The dorsal ventral axis of vertebrates requires high BMP activity for ventral development and inhibition of BMP activity for dorsal development. Presumptive dorsal regions of the embryo are protected from the ventralizing activity of BMPs by the secretion of BMP antagonists from the mesoderm. Noggin, one such antagonist, binds BMP ligands and prevents them from binding their receptors, however, a unique role for Noggin in amphibian development has remained unclear. Previously, we used zinc-finger nucleases to mutagenize the noggin locus in Xenopus tropicalis. Here, we report on the phenotype of noggin mutant frogs as a result of breeding null mutations to homozygosity. Early homozygous noggin mutant embryos are indistinguishable from wildtype siblings, with normal neural induction and neural tube closure. However, in late tadpole stages mutants present severe ventral craniofacial defects, notably a fusion of Meckel's cartilage to the palatoquadrate cartilage. Consistent with a noggin loss-of-function, mutants show expansions of BMP target gene expression and the mutant phenotype can be rescued with transient BMP inhibition. These results demonstrate that in amphibians, Noggin is dispensable for early embryonic patterning but is critical for cranial skeletogenesis.

PubMed ID: 27364468
PMC ID: PMC5209299
Article link: Dev Biol
Grant support: [+]

Species referenced: Xenopus tropicalis
Genes referenced: chrd.1 dlx1 edn1 fst h3-3a hand2 krt12.4 msx1 msx2 myod1 nkx3-2 nog sox2
Morpholinos: chrd.1 MO7 fst MO3

Article Images: [+] show captions
References [+] :
Alexander, Combinatorial roles for BMPs and Endothelin 1 in patterning the dorsal-ventral axis of the craniofacial skeleton. 2011, Pubmed, Xenbase