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Endocrinology 2017 Apr 01;1584:1022-1033. doi: 10.1210/en.2016-1558.
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Direct Regulation of Histidine Ammonia-Lyase 2 Gene by Thyroid Hormone in the Developing Adult Intestinal Stem Cells.

Luu N , Fu L , Fujimoto K , Shi YB .

Most vertebrate organs use adult stem cells to maintain homeostasis and ensure proper repair when damaged. How such organ-specific stem cells are formed during vertebrate development is largely unexplored. We have been using the thyroid hormone (T3)-dependent amphibian metamorphosis to address this issue. Early studies in Xenopus laevis have shown that intestinal remodeling involves complete degeneration of the larval epithelium and de novo formation of adult stem cells through dedifferentiation of some larval epithelial cells. We have further discovered that the histidine ammonia-lyase (HAL; also known as histidase or histidinase)-2 gene is strongly and specifically activated by T3 in the proliferating adult stem cells of the intestine during metamorphosis, implicating a role of histidine catabolism in the development of adult intestinal stem cells. To determine the mechanism by which T3 regulates the HAL2 gene, we have carried out bioinformatics analysis and discovered a putative T3 response element (TRE) in the HAL2 gene. Importantly, we show that this TRE is bound by T3 receptor (TR) in the intestine during metamorphosis. The TRE is capable of binding to the heterodimer of TR and 9-cis retinoic acid receptor (RXR) in vitro and mediate transcriptional activation by liganded TR/RXR in frog oocytes. More importantly, the HAL2 promoter containing the TRE can drive T3-dependent reporter gene expression to mimic endogenous HAL2 expression in transgenic animals. Our results suggest that the TRE mediates the induction of HAL2 gene by T3 in the developing adult intestinal stem cells during metamorphosis.

PubMed ID: 28323994
PMC ID: PMC5460799
Article link: Endocrinology

Species referenced: Xenopus laevis
Genes referenced: dot1l hal.2 rxra tecta.2 thrb
GO keywords: cell dedifferentiation [+]
Antibodies: Tecta.2 Ab1 Thrb Ab2

Article Images: [+] show captions
References [+] :
AUERBACH, Histidinemia. A deficiency in histidase resulting in the urinary excretion of histidine and of imidazolepyruvic acid. 1962, Pubmed