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Front Neuroanat 2017 Mar 27;11:24. doi: 10.3389/fnana.2017.00024.
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Pattern of Neurogenesis and Identification of Neuronal Progenitor Subtypes during Pallial Development in Xenopus laevis.

The complexity of the pallium during evolution has increased dramatically in many different respects. The highest level of complexity is found in mammals, where most of the pallium (cortex) shows a layered organization and neurons are generated during development following an inside-out order, a sequence not observed in other amniotes (birds and reptiles). Species-differences may be related to major neurogenetic events, from the neural progenitors that divide and produce all pallial cells. In mammals, two main types of precursors have been described, primary precursor cells in the ventricular zone (vz; also called radial glial cells or apical progenitors) and secondary precursor cells (called basal or intermediate progenitors) separated from the ventricle surface. Previous studies suggested that pallial neurogenetic cells, and especially the intermediate progenitors, evolved independently in mammalian and sauropsid lineages. In the present study, we examined pallial neurogenesis in the amphibian Xenopus laevis, a representative species of the only group of tetrapods that are anamniotes. The pattern of pallial proliferation during embryonic and larval development was studied, together with a multiple immunohistochemical analysis of putative progenitor cells. We found that there are two phases of progenitor divisions in the developing pallium that, following the radial unit concept from the ventricle to the mantle, finally result in an outside-in order of mature neurons, what seems to be the primitive condition of vertebrates. Gene expressions of key transcription factors that characterize radial glial cells in the vz were demonstrated in Xenopus. In addition, although mitotic cells were corroborated outside the vz, the expression pattern of markers for intermediate progenitors differed from mammals.

PubMed ID: 28396626
PMC ID: PMC5366753
Article link: Front Neuroanat

Species referenced: Xenopus laevis
Genes referenced: calb2 dcx eomes fabp7 h3-3a isl1 lhx2 pax6 pcna sox2 tbr1
GO keywords: cell proliferation [+]
Antibodies: BrdU Ab7 Calb2 Ab4 Dcx Ab3 Eomes Ab2 Eomes Ab3 Fabp7 Ab1 GABA Ab2 H3f3a Ab35 Isl1/2 Ab1 Lhx2 Ab1 Pax6 Ab3 Pcna Ab5 Sox2 Ab1

Article Images: [+] show captions
References [+] :
Adolf, Conserved and acquired features of adult neurogenesis in the zebrafish telencephalon. 2006, Pubmed