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Curr Top Dev Biol 2021 Jan 01;145:61-90. doi: 10.1016/bs.ctdb.2021.01.001.
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Modeling endoderm development and disease in Xenopus.

Edwards NA , Zorn AM .

The endoderm is the innermost germ layer that forms the linings of the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts, and their associated organs, during embryonic development. Xenopus embryology experiments have provided fundamental insights into how the endoderm develops in vertebrates, including the critical role of TGFβ-signaling in endoderm induction,elucidating the gene regulatory networks controlling germ layer development and the key molecular mechanisms regulating endoderm patterning and morphogenesis. With new genetic, genomic, and imaging approaches, Xenopus is now routinely used to model human disease, discover mechanisms underlying endoderm organogenesis, and inform differentiation protocols for pluripotent stem cell differentiation and regenerative medicine applications. In this chapter, we review historical and current discoveries of endoderm development in Xenopus, then provide examples of modeling human disease and congenital defects of endoderm-derived organs using Xenopus.

PubMed ID: 34074536
Article link: Curr Top Dev Biol
Grant support: [+]

Species referenced: Xenopus tropicalis Xenopus laevis
Genes referenced: abcc8 adam13 aldh1a2 apc bmp4 ccnd1 cdh11 ctnnb1 ctnnd1 ern1 fgf4 foxa2 foxf1 fzd4 gata4 gata5 gata6 gli2 gli3 hnf1b ism1 kcnj11 lhx8 mapk8 mixer msx2 ndrg1 neurog3 nkx2-1 nog osr1 osr2 pax6 pcbd1 pdx1 pitx2 ptf1a rab11a rfx6 sf3b4 slc2a2 smad7 smchd1 sox17a tbx5 tbxt tspan8 vangl2 vegt wfs1 wnt11b wnt2 wnt2b wnt3a
GO keywords: midgut development [+]

Disease Ontology terms: orofacial cleft [+]