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Mutat Res Rev Mutat Res 2021 Jan 01;787:108347. doi: 10.1016/j.mrrev.2020.108347.
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Function and molecular mechanisms of APE2 in genome and epigenome integrity.

Lin Y , McMahon A , Driscoll G , Bullock S , Zhao J , Yan S .

APE2 is a rising vital player in the maintenance of genome and epigenome integrity. In the past several years, a series of studies have shown the critical roles and functions of APE2. We seek to provide the first comprehensive review on several aspects of APE2 in genome and epigenome integrity. We first summarize the distinct functional domains or motifs within APE2 including EEP (endonuclease/exonuclease/phosphatase) domain, PIP box and Zf-GRF motifs from eight species (i.e., Homo sapiens, Mus musculus, Xenopus laevis, Ciona intestinalis, Arabidopsis thaliana, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and Trypanosoma cruzi). Then we analyze various APE2 nuclease activities and associated DNA substrates, including AP endonuclease, 3'-phosphodiesterase, 3'-phosphatase, and 3'-5' exonuclease activities. We also examine several APE2 interaction proteins, including PCNA, Chk1, APE1, Myh1, and homologous recombination (HR) factors such as Rad51, Rad52, BRCA1, BRCA2, and BARD1. Furthermore, we provide insights into the roles of APE2 in various DNA repair pathways (base excision repair, single-strand break repair, and double-strand break repair), DNA damage response (DDR) pathways (ATR-Chk1 and p53-dependent), immunoglobulin class switch recombination and somatic hypermutation, as well as active DNA demethylation. Lastly, we summarize critical functions of APE2 in growth, development, and diseases. In this review, we provide the first comprehensive perspective which dissects all aspects of the multiple-function protein APE2 in genome and epigenome integrity.

PubMed ID: 34083046
PMC ID: PMC8287789
Article link: Mutat Res Rev Mutat Res
Grant support: [+]

Species referenced: Xenopus laevis
Genes referenced: apex2 bard1 brca1 brca2 chek1 ghrh myh1 pcna rad51 rad52 tp53

References [+] :
Akbari, Mitochondrial base excision repair of uracil and AP sites takes place by single-nucleotide insertion and long-patch DNA synthesis. 2008, Pubmed