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Cell Tissue Res 2021 Dec 01;3863:491-511. doi: 10.1007/s00441-021-03527-3.
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Distinct interhemispheric connectivity at the level of the olfactory bulb emerges during Xenopus laevis metamorphosis.

Weiss L , Segoviano Arias P , Offner T , Hawkins SJ , Hassenklöver T , Manzini I .

During metamorphosis, the olfactory system of anuran tadpoles undergoes substantial restructuring. The main olfactory epithelium in the principal nasal cavity of Xenopus laevis tadpoles is associated with aquatic olfaction and transformed into the adult air-nose, while a new adult water-nose emerges in the middle cavity. Impacts of this metamorphic remodeling on odor processing, behavior, and network structure are still unexplored. Here, we used neuronal tracings, calcium imaging, and behavioral experiments to examine the functional connectivity between the epithelium and the main olfactory bulb during metamorphosis. In tadpoles, olfactory receptor neurons in the principal cavity project axons to glomeruli in the ventral main olfactory bulb. These projections are gradually replaced by receptor neuron axons from the newly forming middle cavity epithelium. Despite this reorganization in the ventral bulb, two spatially segregated odor processing streams remain undisrupted and behavioral responses to waterborne odorants are unchanged. Contemporaneously, new receptor neurons in the remodeling principal cavity innervate the emerging dorsal part of the bulb, which displays distinct wiring features. Glomeruli around its midline are innervated from the left and right nasal epithelia. Additionally, postsynaptic projection neurons in the dorsal bulb predominantly connect to multiple glomeruli, while half of projection neurons in the ventral bulb are uni-glomerular. Our results show that the "water system" remains functional despite metamorphic reconstruction. The network differences between the dorsal and ventral olfactory bulb imply a higher degree of odor integration in the dorsal main olfactory bulb. This is possibly connected with the processing of different odorants, airborne vs. waterborne.

PubMed ID: 34580751
Article link: Cell Tissue Res
Grant support: [+]

Species referenced: Xenopus laevis
GO keywords: metamorphosis [+]

Article Images: [+] show captions
References [+] :
Amano, Expression of odorant receptor family, type 2 OR in the aquatic olfactory cavity of amphibian frog Xenopus tropicalis. 2012, Pubmed, Xenbase