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Dev Dyn 2022 Aug 01;2518:1340-1356. doi: 10.1002/dvdy.465.
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Normal development in Xenopus laevis: A complementary staging table for the skull based on cartilage and bone.

MacKenzie EM , Atkins JB , Korneisel DE , Cantelon AS , McKinnell IW , Maddin HC .

BACKGROUND: Xenopus laevis is a widely used model organism in the fields of genetics and development, and more recently evolution. At present, the most widely used staging table for X. laevis is based primarily on external features and does not describe the corresponding skull development in detail. Here, we describe skull development in X. laevis, complete with labeled figures, for each relevant stage in the most widely used staging table. RESULTS: We find skull development in X. laevis is, for the most part, distinct at each of the previously established stages based on external anatomy. However, variation does exist in the timing of onset of ossification of certain bones in the skull, which results in a range of stages where a skull element first ossifies. The overall sequence of ossification is less variable than the timing of ossification onset. CONCLUSIONS: While events in skull development vary somewhat between specimens, and in comparison, to external events, this staging table is useful in showing both when bones first appear and for documenting the range of temporal variance in X. laevis skull development more accurately than previously done. Furthermore, when only skull data are available, the approximate stage of a specimen can now be determined.

PubMed ID: 35247013
Article link: Dev Dyn
Grant support: [+]

Species referenced: Xenopus laevis
Genes referenced: asl cnr1 phb1 smpd1
GO keywords: ossification [+]

Article Images: [+] show captions