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Cell Stress Chaperones 2023 Sep 01;285:529-540. doi: 10.1007/s12192-022-01275-z.
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Regulation of the unfolded protein response during dehydration stress in African clawed frogs, Xenopus laevis.

Malik AI , Storey JM , Storey KB .

The unfolded protein response (UPR) is a wide-ranging cellular response to accumulation of malfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and acts as a quality control mechanism to halt protein processing and repair/destroy malfolded proteins under stress conditions of many kinds. Among vertebrate species, amphibians experience the greatest challenges in maintaining water and osmotic balance, the high permeability of their skin making them very susceptible to dehydration and challenging their ability to maintain cellular homeostasis. The present study evaluates the involvement of the UPR in dealing with dehydration-mediated disruption of protein processing in the tissues of African clawed frogs, Xenopus laevis. This primarily aquatic frog must deal with seasonal drought conditions in its native southern Africa environment. Key markers of cellular stress that impact protein processing were identified in six tissues of frogs that had lost 28% of total body water, as compared with fully hydrated controls. This included upregulation of glucose-regulated proteins (GRPs) that are resident chaperones in the ER, particularly 2-ninefold increases in GRP58, GRP75, and/or GRP94 in the lung and skin. Activating transcription factors (ATF3, ATF4, ATF6) that mediate UPR responses also responded to dehydration stress, particularly in skeletal muscle where both ATF3 and ATF4 rose strongly in the nucleus. Other protein markers of the UPR including GADD34, GADD153, EDEM, and XBP-1 also showed selective upregulation in frog tissues in response to dehydration and nuclear levels of the transcription factors XBP-1 and P-CREB rose indicating up-regulation of genes under their control.

PubMed ID: 35484355
PMC ID: PMC10468459
Article link: Cell Stress Chaperones
Grant support: [+]

Species referenced: Xenopus laevis
Genes referenced: atf3 atf4 creb1 ddit3 hsp90b1

References [+] :
Balinsky, Amino acid metabolism and urea synthesis in naturally aestivating Xenopus laevis. 1967, Pubmed, Xenbase