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Chemosphere 2022 Sep 01;303Pt 3:135302. doi: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2022.135302.
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Developmental, toxicological effects and recovery patterns in Xenopus laevis after exposure to penconazole-based fungicide during the metamorphosis process.

Turhan DO , Güngördü A .

Fungicides are a group of chemicals causing pollution of freshwater ecosystems due to their widespread use in agriculture. However, their endocrine disrupting effects are less studied than herbicides and insecticides. The aim of this study was to evaluate the developmental and toxicological effects and recovery patterns of penconazole-based fungicide (PBF) during Xenopus laevis metamorphosis. For this purpose, firstly, the 96 h median lethal (LC50) and effective (EC50) concentrations and minimum concentration to inhibit growth (MCIG) values of PBF were estimated for X. laevis as 4.97, 3.55 and 2.31 mg/L respectively, using Frog Embryo Teratogenesis Assay-Xenopus (FETAX) on Nieuwkoop-Faber (NF) stage 8 embryos. FETAX results showed PBF formulation was slightly teratogenic with a 1.4 teratogenic index; most recorded malformations were gut, abdominal edema, and tail curvature. The Subacute Amphibian Metamorphosis Assay (AMA) was modified based on acute FETAX results, and used to evaluate toxic effects and recovery patterns of relatively low PBF concentrations on metamorphosis using morphological and biochemical markers. NF Stage 51 tadpoles were exposed to two separate groups of each concentration for seven days in the AMA. Secondly, tadpoles of one group of each concentration continued to be exposed to PBF for the next 7 and 14 days while the other group was kept in a pesticide-free environment (depuration/recovery). Various morphological and biochemical markers were measured homogenate samples of tadpoles from exposure and recovery groups. Continuous exposure to relatively low PBF concentrations caused oxidative stress, toxic, and endocrine disrupting effects in the AMA, leading us to conclude that it has negative effects on frog health and development during the recovery period when PBF exposure is terminated. The glutathione S-transferase, glutathione reductase, catalase, carboxylesterase, and acetylcholinesterase activities were higher than the control group transferred to pesticide-free media for 14 days after the 7 days exposure and indicate persistent PBF impact.

PubMed ID: 35697111
Article link: Chemosphere

Species referenced: Xenopus laevis
Genes referenced: ache cat.1