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Int J Mol Sci 2022 Jul 08;2314:. doi: 10.3390/ijms23147578.
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A Focal Impact Model of Traumatic Brain Injury in Xenopus Tadpoles Reveals Behavioral Alterations, Neuroinflammation, and an Astroglial Response.

Spruiell Eldridge SL , Teetsel JFK , Torres RA , Ulrich CH , Shah VV , Singh D , Zamora MJ , Zamora S , Sater AK .

Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) is a global driver of disability, and we currently lack effective therapies to promote neural repair and recovery. TBI is characterized by an initial insult, followed by a secondary injury cascade, including inflammation, excitotoxicity, and glial cellular response. This cascade incorporates molecular mechanisms that represent potential targets of therapeutic intervention. In this study, we investigate the response to focal impact injury to the optic tectum of Xenopus laevis tadpoles. This injury disrupts the blood-brain barrier, causing edema, and produces deficits in visually-driven behaviors which are resolved within one week. Within 3 h, injured brains show a dramatic transcriptional activation of inflammatory cytokines, upregulation of genes associated with inflammation, and recruitment of microglia to the injury site and surrounding tissue. Shortly afterward, astrocytes undergo morphological alterations and accumulate near the injury site, and these changes persist for at least 48 h following injury. Genes associated with astrocyte reactivity and neuroprotective functions also show elevated levels of expression following injury. Since our results demonstrate that the response to focal impact injury in Xenopus resembles the cellular alterations observed in rodents and other mammalian models, the Xenopus tadpole offers a new, scalable vertebrate model for TBI.

PubMed ID: 35886924
Article link: Int J Mol Sci
Grant support: [+]

Species referenced: Xenopus laevis
Genes referenced: aldh1l1 aqp4 arg1 bdnf clu csf1r cxcl2 fabp7 il1b il6 manf mmp9.1 nes nfkb1 p2ry12 slc1a3 steap4.1 timp1 tmem119 tnf uchl1 vim
GO keywords: brain development [+]
Antibodies: Aldh1l1 Ab1 GFP Ab16 Vim Ab5

Article Images: [+] show captions
References [+] :
Alam, Cellular infiltration in traumatic brain injury. 2020, Pubmed