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Gen Comp Endocrinol 2022 Nov 01;328:114102. doi: 10.1016/j.ygcen.2022.114102.
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Upregulation of proto-oncogene ski by thyroid hormone in the intestine and tail during Xenopus metamorphosis.

Fu L , Liu R , Ma V , Shi YB .

Thyroid hormone (T3) is important for adult organ function and vertebrate development, particularly during the postembryonic period when many organs develop/mature into their adult forms. Amphibian metamorphosis is totally dependent on T3 and can be easily manipulated, thus offering a unique opportunity for studying how T3 controls postembryonic development in vertebrates. Numerous early studies have demonstrated that T3 affects frog metamorphosis through T3 receptor (TR)-mediated regulation of T3 response genes, where TR forms a heterodimer with RXR (9-cis retinoic acid receptor) and binds to T3 response elements (TREs) in T3 response genes to regulate their expression. We have previously identified many candidate direct T3 response genes in Xenopus tropicalis tadpole intestine. Among them is the proto-oncogene Ski, which encodes a nuclear protein with complex function in regulating cell fate. We show here that Ski is upregulated in the intestine and tail of premetamorphic tadpoles upon T3 treatment and its expression peaks at stage 62, the climax of metamorphosis. We have further discovered a putative TRE in the first exon that can bind to TR/RXR in vitro and mediate T3 regulation of the promoter in vivo. These data demonstrate that Ski is activated by T3 through TR binding to a TRE in the first exon during Xenopus tropicalis metamorphosis, implicating a role of Ski in regulating cell fate during metamorphosis.

PubMed ID: 35944650
PMC ID: PMC9530006
Article link: Gen Comp Endocrinol
Grant support: [+]

Species referenced: Xenopus tropicalis Xenopus laevis
Genes referenced: ski
GO keywords: thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor activity [+]

Article Images: [+] show captions
References [+] :
Bagamasbad, A role for basic transcription element-binding protein 1 (BTEB1) in the autoinduction of thyroid hormone receptor beta. 2008, Pubmed, Xenbase