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Dev Biol 2023 Apr 01;496:87-94. doi: 10.1016/j.ydbio.2023.01.011.
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The heparan sulfate modification enzyme, Hs6st1, governs Xenopus neuroectodermal patterning by regulating distributions of Fgf and Noggin.

Yamamoto T , Kaneshima T , Tsukano K , Michiue T .

The nervous system has various types of cells derived from three neuroectodermal regions: neural plate (NP), neural crest (NC), and preplacodal ectoderm (PPE). Differentiation of these regions is regulated by various morphogens. However, regulatory mechanisms of morphogen distribution in neural patterning are still debated. In general, an extracellular component, heparan sulfate (HS), is essential to regulate morphogen gradients by modulating morphogen binding. The present study focused on an HS modification enzyme, heparan sulfate 6-O-sulfotransferase 1 (Hs6st1), which is highly expressed during the neurula stage in Xenopus. Our present in situ hybridization analysis revealed that Hs6st1 is expressed in the lateral sensorial layer of neuroectoderm. Overexpression of Hs6st1 expands Sox3 (NP marker gene) expression, and slightly dampens FoxD3 (NC marker) expression. Hs6st1 knockout using the CRISPR/Cas9 system also expands the neural plate region, followed by retinal malformation. These results imply that 6-O sulfation, mediated by Hs6st1, selectively regulates morphogen distribution required for neuroectodermal patterning. Among morphogens required for patterning, Fgf8a accumulates on Hs6st1-expressing cells, whereas a secreted BMP antagonist, Noggin, diffuses away from those cells. Thus, cell-autonomous 6-O sulfation of HS at the sensorial layer of neuroectoderm also affects neuroectodermal patterning in neighboring regions, including neural plate and neural crest, not only through accumulation, but also through dispersal of specific morphogens.

PubMed ID: 36739958
Article link: Dev Biol

Species referenced: Xenopus tropicalis Xenopus laevis
Genes referenced: cep19 fgf1 fgf8 foxd3 gpi hs6st1 krt12.4 krt12.5 neurod1 nog pam rax sh3yl1 six3 sox3 tfap2a uggt1
gRNAs referenced: hs6st1 gRNA1 hs6st1 gRNA2 hs6st1 gRNA3 tyr gRNA7

Phenotypes: Xla Wt + hs6st1 CRISPR (Fig. 3 B) [+]

Article Images: [+] show captions