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Curr Top Dev Biol 2023 Jan 01;153:229-254. doi: 10.1016/bs.ctdb.2023.01.011.
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The role of Wnt signaling in Xenopus neural induction.

Velloso I , Han W , He X , Abreu JG .

Development of the central nervous system in amphibians has called attention from scientists for over a century. Interested in the matter of embryonic inductions, Hans Spemann and Hilde Mangold found out that the dorsal blastopore lip of the salamander's embryo has organizer properties. Such an ectopic graft could induce structures in the host embryo, including a neural tube overlying the notochord of a perfect secondary body axis. A couple of decades later, the frog Xenopus laevis emerged as an excellent embryological experimental model and seminal concepts involving embryonic inductions began to be revealed. The so-called primary induction is, in fact, a composition of signaling and inductive events that are triggered as soon as fertilization takes place. In this regard, since early 1990s an intricate network of signaling pathways has been built. The Wnt pathway, which began to be uncovered in cancer biology studies, is crucial during the establishment of two signaling centers in Xenopus embryogenesis: Nieuwkoop center and the blastula chordin noggin expression center (BCNE). Here we will discuss the historical events that led to the discovery of those centers, as well as the molecular mechanisms by which they operate. This chapter highlights the cooperation of both signaling centers with potential to be further explored in the future. We aim to address the essential morphological transformation during gastrulation and neurulation as well as the role of Wnt signaling in patterning the organizer and the neural plate.

PubMed ID: 36967196
Article link: Curr Top Dev Biol
Grant support: [+]

Genes referenced: chrd nog