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Sci Total Environ 2023 Apr 15;869:161794. doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2023.161794.
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Characterization of imidacloprid-induced hepatotoxicity and its mechanisms based on a metabolomic approach in Xenopus laevis.

Zhou X , Ming R , Guo M , Jiao H , Cui H , Hu D , Lu P .

The toxic effects of imidacloprid are attracting increased concern because of its widespread use in agriculture and its persistence in the aquatic environment. Imidacloprid bioaccumulates and triggers various morphological and behavioral responses in amphibians, but the toxic effects and mechanism of imidacloprid in amphibians remain uncertain. In this study, the acute toxicity and chronic effects of imidacloprid on Xenopus laevis were studied. Acute toxicity for 96 h revealed that imidacloprid had an LC50 value of 74.18 mg/L. After exposure for 28 d under 1/10 and 1/100 LC50, liver samples from X. laevis were employed for biochemical analyses, pathological studies, and nontargeted metabolomics to systematically assess the toxic effects and mechanisms of imidacloprid. The results showed that oxidative stress and hepatic tissue morphology changes were observed in treated X. laevis liver. Twelve metabolites involved in metabolic pathway were altered between the control and high exposure groups and twenty-one metabolites were altered between the control and low exposure group. Eight metabolic pathways exposed to high levels and nine metabolic pathways exposed to low level of imidacloprid were disturbed. These pathways were primarily related to amino acid metabolism, lipid metabolism, and nucleotide metabolism. Our research provides essential information to evaluate the potential toxicity of imidacloprid to nontarget aquatic organisms.

PubMed ID: 36707007
Article link: Sci Total Environ

Species referenced: Xenopus laevis
Genes referenced: sod1
GO keywords: cellular amino acid metabolic process [+]

Article Images: [+] show captions