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Environ Pollut 2023 Sep 01;332:121710. doi: 10.1016/j.envpol.2023.121710.
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Adverse effects and potential mechanisms of fluxapyroxad in Xenopus laevis on carbohydrate and lipid metabolism.

Zhao Y , Jiao F , Tang T , Wu S , Wang F , Zhao X .

Fungicides are one of significant contributing factors to the rapid decline of amphibian species worldwide. Fluxapyroxad (FLX), an effective and broad-spectrum succinate dehydrogenase inhibitor fungicide, has attracted major concerns due to its long-lasting in the environment. However, the potential toxicity of FLX in the development of amphibians remains mostly unknown. In this research, the potential toxic effects and mechanisms of FLX on Xenopus laevis were investigated. In the acute toxicity test, the 96 h median lethal concentration (LC50) of FLX in X. laevis tadpoles was 1.645 mg/L. Based on the acute toxicity result, tadpoles at the stage 51 were exposed to 0, 0.00822, 0.0822, and 0.822 mg/L FLX during 21 days. Results demonstrated that FLX exposure led to an apparent delay in the growth and development of tadpoles and associated with severe liver injury. Additionally, FLX induced glycogen depletion and lipid accumulation in the liver of X. laevis. The biochemical analysis of plasma and liver indicated that FLX exposure could perturb liver glucose and lipid homeostasis by altering enzyme activity related to glycolysis, gluconeogenesis, fatty acid synthesis, and oxidation. Consistent with the biochemical result, FLX exposure altered the liver transcriptome profile, and the enrichment analysis of differential expression genes highlighted the adverse effects of FLX exposure on steroid biosynthesis, PPAR signaling pathway, glycolysis/gluconeogenesis, and fatty acid metabolism in the tadpole liver. Overall, our study was the first to reveal that sub-lethal concentrations of FLX could induce liver damage and produce obvious interference effects on carbohydrate and lipid metabolism of Xenopus, providing new insight into the potential chronic hazards of FLX for amphibians.

PubMed ID: 37137408
Article link: Environ Pollut

Species referenced: Xenopus tropicalis Xenopus laevis
Genes referenced: cpt1b cyp51a1 fasn gck insr pck1 ppara pparg scd sdha
GO keywords: succinate dehydrogenase activity [+]

Article Images: [+] show captions