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Immunohorizons 2023 Oct 01;710:696-707. doi: 10.4049/immunohorizons.2300081.
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Larval T Cells Are Functionally Distinct from Adult T Cells in Xenopus laevis.

Paiola M , McGuire CC , Lopez Ruiz V , De Jesús Andino F , Robert J .

The amphibian Xenopus laevis tadpole provides a unique comparative experimental organism for investigating the roles of innate-like T (iT) cells in tolerogenic immunity during early development. Unlike mammals and adult frogs, where conventional T cells are dominant, tadpoles rely mostly on several prominent distinct subsets of iT cells interacting with cognate nonpolymorphic MHC class I-like molecules. In the present study, to investigate whole T cell responsiveness ontogenesis in X. laevis, we determined in tadpoles and adult frogs the capacity of splenic T cells to proliferate in vivo upon infection with two different pathogens, ranavirus FV3 and Mycobacterium marinum, as well as in vitro upon PHA stimulation using the thymidine analogous 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine and flow cytometry. We also analyzed by RT-quantitative PCR T cell responsiveness upon PHA stimulation. In vivo tadpole splenic T cells showed limited capacity to proliferate, whereas the in vitro proliferation rate was higher than adult T cells. Gene markers for T cell activation and immediate-early genes induced upon TCR activation were upregulated with similar kinetics in tadpole and adult splenocytes. However, the tadpole T cell signature included a lower amplitude in the TCR signaling, which is a hallmark of mammalian memory-like T cells and iT or "preset" T cells. This study suggests that reminiscent of mammalian neonatal T cells, tadpole T cells are functionally different from their adult counterpart.

PubMed ID: 37870488
PMC ID: PMC10615653
Article link: Immunohorizons
Grant support: [+]

Species referenced: Xenopus laevis
Genes referenced: fos gapdh ifng il4 irf4 kcnh6 myh6 nr4a1 ybx1
GO keywords: cell proliferation [+]

Article Images: [+] show captions
References [+] :
Adkins, Murine neonatal lymphocytes show rapid early cell cycle entry and cell division. 2003, Pubmed