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Dev Neurobiol 2024 Apr 01;842:59-73. doi: 10.1002/dneu.22935.
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S100Z is expressed in a lateral subpopulation of olfactory receptor neurons in the main olfactory system of Xenopus laevis.

Kahl M , Offner T , Trendel A , Weiss L , Manzini I , Hassenklöver T .

In contrast to other S100 protein members, the function of S100 calcium-binding protein Z (S100Z) remains largely uncharacterized. It is expressed in the olfactory epithelium of fish, and it is closely associated with the vomeronasal organ (VNO) in mammals. In this study, we analyzed the expression pattern of S100Z in the olfactory system of the anuran amphibian Xenopus laevis. Using immunohistochemistry in whole mount and slice preparations of the larval olfactory system, we found exclusive S100Z expression in a subpopulation of olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) of the main olfactory epithelium (MOE). S100Z expression was not co-localized with TP63 and cytokeratin type II, ruling out basal cell and supporting cell identity. The distribution of S100Z-expressing ORNs was laterally biased, and their average number was significantly increased in the lateral half of the olfactory epithelium. The axons of S100Z-positive neurons projected exclusively into the lateral and intermediate glomerular clusters of the main olfactory bulb (OB). Even after metamorphic restructuring of the olfactory system, S100Z expression was restricted to a neuronal subpopulation of the MOE, which was then located in the newly formed middle cavity. An axonal projection into the ventro-lateral OB persisted also in postmetamorphic frogs. In summary, S100Z is exclusively associated with the main olfactory system in the amphibian Xenopus and not with the VNO as in mammals, despite the presence of a separate accessory olfactory system in both classes.

PubMed ID: 38439531
Article link: Dev Neurobiol
Grant support: [+]

Species referenced: Xenopus laevis
Genes referenced: calb2 krt12.4 ncam1 pax6 s100a1 s100z tp63 trpc2 tubb
GO keywords: olfactory receptor activity [+]
Antibodies: Calb2 Ab6 Krt5.2 Ab1 Ncam1 Ab1 Tp63 Ab2 Tubb Ab1 s100z Ab1

Article Images: [+] show captions