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XB-ART-60748
Pigment Cell Melanoma Res 2024 Jun 07; doi: 10.1111/pcmr.13178.
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Xenopus as a model system for studying pigmentation and pigmentary disorders.

El Mir J , Nasrallah A , Thézé N , Cario M , Fayyad-Kazan H , Thiébaud P , Rezvani HR .


Abstract
Human pigmentary disorders encompass a broad spectrum of phenotypic changes arising from disruptions in various stages of melanocyte formation, the melanogenesis process, or the transfer of pigment from melanocytes to keratinocytes. A large number of pigmentation genes associated with pigmentary disorders have been identified, many of them awaiting in vivo confirmation. A more comprehensive understanding of the molecular basis of pigmentary disorders requires a vertebrate animal model where changes in pigmentation are easily observable in vivo and can be combined to genomic modifications and gain/loss-of-function tools. Here we present the amphibian Xenopus with its unique features that fulfill these requirements. Changes in pigmentation are particularly easy to score in Xenopus embryos, allowing whole-organism based phenotypic screening. The development and behavior of Xenopus melanocytes closely mimic those observed in mammals. Interestingly, both Xenopus and mammalian skins exhibit comparable reactions to ultraviolet radiation. This review highlights how Xenopus constitutes an alternative and complementary model to the more commonly used mouse and zebrafish, contributing to the advancement of knowledge in melanocyte cell biology and related diseases.

PubMed ID: 38849973
Article link: Pigment Cell Melanoma Res
Grant support: [+]

Species referenced: Xenopus tropicalis Xenopus laevis
Genes referenced: angptl4 atp6v0c bmpr1b braf dct dse edn3 ednrb ets1 foxd3 mitf msx1 nlgn1 otogl2 pax3 rab27a raf1 shh shroom2 slc24a5 slc45a2 snai2 sox10 sox2 tyr tyrp1
GO keywords: angiogenesis [+]

Disease Ontology terms: oculocutaneous albinism [+]
Phenotypes: Xla Wt + NSC84093 (Fig. 5 c) [+]

Article Images: [+] show captions