XB-ART-6541Eur J Biochem 2002 Sep 01;26918:4566-76. doi: 10.1046/j.1432-1033.2002.03152.x.
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Characterization and functional expression of cDNAs encoding thyrotropin-releasing hormone receptor from Xenopus laevis.
Thyrotropin-releasing hormone receptor (TRHR) has already been cloned in mammals wherethyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) is known to act as a powerful stimulator of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) secretion. The TRH receptor of amphibians has not yet been characterized, although TRH is specifically important in the adaptation of skin color to environmental changes via the secretion of alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH). Using a dege-nerate PCR strategy, we report on the isolation of three distinct cDNA species encoding TRHR from the brain of Xenopus laevis. We have designated these as xTRHR1, xTRHR2 and xTRHR3. Analysis of the predicted amino acid sequences revealed that the three Xenopus TRHRs are only 54-62% identical and contain all the highly conserved residues constituting the TRH binding pocket. Amino acid sequences and phylogenetic analysis revealed that xTRHR1 is a member of TRHR subfamily 1 and xTRHR2 belongs to subfamily 2, while xTRHR3 is a new TRHR subtype awaiting discovery in other animal species. The three Xeno-pus TRHRs have distinct patterns of expression. xTRHR3 was abundant in the brain and much scarcer in the peripheral tissues, whereas xTRHR1 was found mainly in the stomach and xTRHR2 in the heart. The Xenopus TRHR subtype 1 was found specifically in the intestine, lung and urinary bladder. These observations suggest that the three xTRHRs each have specific functions that remain to be elucidated. Expression in Xenopus oocytes and HEK-293 cells indicates that the three Xenopus TRHRs are fully functional and are coupled to the inositol phosphate/calcium pathway. Interestingly, activation of xTRHR3 required larger concentrations of TRH compared with the other two receptors, suggesting marked differences in receptor binding, coupling or regulation.
PubMed ID: 12230569
Article link: Eur J Biochem
Species referenced: Xenopus laevis
Genes referenced: pomc trh trhr trhr2 trhr3 tshb