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Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1996 Jun 25;9313:6415-20. doi: 10.1073/pnas.93.13.6415.
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A novel homeobox gene PV.1 mediates induction of ventral mesoderm in Xenopus embryos.

Ault KT , Dirksen ML , Jamrich M .

The formation of ventral mesoderm has been traditionally viewed as a result of a lack of dorsal signaling and therefore assumed to be a default state of mesodermal development. The discovery that bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4) can induce ventral mesoderm led to the suggestion that the induction of the ventral mesoderm requires a different signaling pathway than the induction of the dorsal mesoderm. However, the individual components of this pathway remained largely unknown. Here we report the identification of a novel Xenopus homeobox gene PV.1 (posterior-ventral 1) that is capable of mediating induction of ventral mesoderm. This gene is activated in blastula stage Xenopus embryos, its expression peaks during gastrulation and declines rapidly after neurulation is complete. PV.1 is expressed in the ventral marginal zone of blastulae and later in the posterior ventral area of gastrulae and neurulae. PV.1 is inducible in uncommited ectoderm by the ventralizing growth factor BMP4 and counteracts the dorsalizing effects of the dominant negative BMP4 receptor. Overexpression of PV.1 yields ventralized tadpoles and rescues embryos partially dorsalized by LiCl treatment. In animal caps, PV.1 ventralizes induction by activin and inhibits expression of dorsal specific genes. All of these effects mimic those previously reported for BMP4. These observations suggest that PV.1 is a critical component in the formation of ventral mesoderm and possibly mediates the effects of BMP4.

PubMed ID: 8692829
PMC ID: PMC39037
Article link: Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A

Species referenced: Xenopus
Genes referenced: actc1 actl6a bmp4 evx1 gsc tbxt ventx1.1 ventx1.2

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References [+] :
Bailey, Methylmercury as a reversible denaturing agent for agarose gel electrophoresis. 1976, Pubmed