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Cold Spring Harb Perspect Biol July 1, 2009; 1 (1): a002477.

Forming and interpreting gradients in the early Xenopus embryo.

The amphibian embryo provides a powerful model system to study morphogen gradients because of the ease with which it is possible to manipulate the early embryo. In particular, it is possible to introduce exogenous sources of morphogen, to follow the progression of the signal, to monitor the cellular response to induction, and to up- or down-regulate molecules that are involved in all aspects of long-range signaling. In this article, I discuss the evidence that gradients exist in the early amphibian embryo, the way in which morphogens might traverse a field of cells, and the way in which different concentrations of morphogens might be interpreted to activate the expression of different genes.

PubMed ID: 20066079
PMC ID: PMC2742078
Article link: Cold Spring Harb Perspect Biol
Grant support: [+]

References [+] :
Agius, Endodermal Nodal-related signals and mesoderm induction in Xenopus. 2000, Pubmed, Xenbase