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Semin Cell Dev Biol January 1, 2017; 66 12-24.

A gene regulatory program controlling early Xenopus mesendoderm formation: Network conservation and motifs.

Charney RM , Paraiso KD , Blitz IL , Cho KWY .

Germ layer formation is among the earliest differentiation events in metazoan embryos. In triploblasts, three germ layers are formed, among which the endoderm gives rise to the epithelial lining of the gut tube and associated organs including the liver, pancreas and lungs. In frogs (Xenopus), where early germ layer formation has been studied extensively, the process of endoderm specification involves the interplay of dozens of transcription factors. Here, we review the interactions between these factors, summarized in a transcriptional gene regulatory network (GRN). We highlight regulatory connections conserved between frog, fish, mouse, and human endodermal lineages. Especially prominent is the conserved role and regulatory targets of the Nodal signaling pathway and the T-box transcription factors, Vegt and Eomes. Additionally, we highlight network topologies and motifs, and speculate on their possible roles in development.

PubMed ID: 28341363
PMC ID: PMC5487371
Article link: Semin Cell Dev Biol
Grant support: [+]

Species referenced: Xenopus
Genes referenced: bix1.1 bix2 bmp2 bmp4 bmp7.1 cer1 ctnnb1 eomes foxa1 foxa2 foxa4 foxh1 gata2 gata4 gata5 gata6 gdf1 gdf3 grn gsc hhex hnf1b lhx1 mix1 mixer nodal nodal1 nodal2 nodal5 nodal6 osr2 otx1 otx2 pitx2 sebox sia1 sia2 smad1 smad2 smad3 snai1 sox17a sox17b.1 sox7 tbxt vegt ventx1.1 ventx2.2 wnt11b wnt8a zic2

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References [+] :
Afouda, GATA transcription factors integrate Wnt signalling during heart development. 2008, Pubmed, Xenbase