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Development 2020 Sep 11;14717:. doi: 10.1242/dev.188094.
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Pinhead signaling regulates mesoderm heterogeneity via the FGF receptor-dependent pathway.

Ossipova O , Itoh K , Radu A , Ezan J , Sokol SY .

Among the three embryonic germ layers, the mesoderm plays a central role in the establishment of the vertebrate body plan. The mesoderm is specified by secreted signaling proteins from the FGF, Nodal, BMP and Wnt families. No new classes of extracellular mesoderm-inducing factors have been identified in more than two decades. Here, we show that the pinhead (pnhd) gene encodes a secreted protein that is essential for the activation of a subset of mesodermal markers in the Xenopus embryo. RNA sequencing revealed that many transcriptional targets of Pnhd are shared with those of the FGF pathway. Pnhd activity was accompanied by Erk phosphorylation and required FGF and Nodal but not Wnt signaling. We propose that during gastrulation Pnhd acts in the marginal zone to contribute to mesoderm heterogeneity via an FGF receptor-dependent positive feedback mechanism.

PubMed ID: 32859582
PMC ID: PMC7502591
Article link: Development
Grant support: [+]

Species referenced: Xenopus laevis
Genes referenced: cdx4 dkk1 esr-5 fgf2 fgfr1 fgfr4 hoxd1 mapk1 msgn1 nodal pnhd smad1 smad2 tbxt wnt8a
GO keywords: fibroblast growth factor receptor signaling pathway [+]
Morpholinos: pnhd MO4 pnhd MO5

GEO Series: GSE143795: Xenbase,  NCBI
Phenotypes: Xla Wt + Xla.pnhd-FLAG (Fig.1.D) [+]

Article Images: [+] show captions
References [+] :
Amaya, Expression of a dominant negative mutant of the FGF receptor disrupts mesoderm formation in Xenopus embryos. 1991, Pubmed, Xenbase