XB-ART-57372Aquat Toxicol 2020 Nov 01;228:105623. doi: 10.1016/j.aquatox.2020.105623.
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Amiodarone bioconcentration and suppression of metamorphosis in Xenopus.
Trace concentrations of a number of pharmaceutically active compounds have been detected in the aquatic environment in many countries, where they are thought to have the potential to exert adverse effects on non-target organisms. Amiodarone (AMD) is one such high-risk compound commonly used in general hospitals. AMD is known to alter normal thyroid hormone (TH) function, although little information is available regarding the specific mechanism by which this disruption occurs. Anuran tadpole metamorphosis is a TH-controlled developmental process and has proven to be useful as a screening tool for environmental pollutants suspected of disrupting TH functions. In the present study, our objective was to clarify the effects of AMD on Xenopus metamorphosis as well as to assess the bioconcentration of this pharmaceutical in the liver. We found that AMD suppressed spontaneous metamorphosis, including tail regression and hindlimb elongation in pro-metamorphic stage tadpoles, which is controlled by endogenous circulating TH, indicating that AMD is a TH antagonist. In transgenic X. laevis tadpoles carrying plasmid DNA containing TH-responsive element (TRE) and a 5'-upstream promoter region of the TH receptor (TR) βA1 gene linked to a green fluorescent protein (EGFP) gene, triiodothyronine (T3) exposure induced a strong EGFP expression in the hind limbs, whereas the addition of AMD to T3 suppressed EGFP expression, suggesting that this drug interferes with the binding of T3 to TR, leading to the inhibition of TR-mediated gene expression. We also found AMD to be highly bioconcentrated in the liver of pro-metamorphic X. tropicalis tadpoles, and we monitored hepatic accumulation of this drug using mass spectrometry imaging (MSI). Our findings suggest that AMD imposes potential risk to aquatic wildlife by disrupting TH homeostasis, with further possibility of accumulating in organisms higher up in the food chain.
PubMed ID: 32956954
Article link: Aquat Toxicol
Genes referenced: cyp4b1 rxra rxrb rxrg thra thrb
GO keywords: metamorphosis
Disease Ontology terms: hypothyroidism