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Development 2022 Jul 15;14914:. doi: 10.1242/dev.200356.
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Normal Table of Xenopus development: a new graphical resource.

Normal tables of development are essential for studies of embryogenesis, serving as an important resource for model organisms, including the frog Xenopus laevis. Xenopus has long been used to study developmental and cell biology, and is an increasingly important model for human birth defects and disease, genomics, proteomics and toxicology. Scientists utilize Nieuwkoop and Faber's classic 'Normal Table of Xenopus laevis (Daudin)' and accompanying illustrations to enable experimental reproducibility and reuse the illustrations in new publications and teaching. However, it is no longer possible to obtain permission for these copyrighted illustrations. We present 133 new, high-quality illustrations of X. laevis development from fertilization to metamorphosis, with additional views that were not available in the original collection. All the images are available on Xenbase, the Xenopus knowledgebase (, for download and reuse under an attributable, non-commercial creative commons license. Additionally, we have compiled a 'Landmarks Table' of key morphological features and marker gene expression that can be used to distinguish stages quickly and reliably ( This new open-access resource will facilitate Xenopus research and teaching in the decades to come.

PubMed ID: 35833709
PMC ID: PMC9445888
Article link: Development
Grant support: [+]

Species referenced: Xenopus laevis
Genes referenced: actc1 aplnr astl3a.1 atp1a1 atp4a bmp4 cfap161 chrd cndp1 cxcl14 en2 fgf2 fgf8 foxj1 gsx1 hand2 hba3 hhex lhx1 nanos1 nkx2-1 nkx2-5 nodal5 nog pax2 pax3 pax8 pdia2 pitx2 ptf1a sall4 shh slc4a4 sox17a sox2 tbxt tekt3 tnni3 vegt wt1
GO keywords: metamorphosis [+]

Article Images: [+] show captions
References [+] :
Almasoudi, Otic Neurogenesis in Xenopus laevis: Proliferation, Differentiation, and the Role of Eya1. 2021, Pubmed, Xenbase