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J Anat 2023 Jan 28; doi: 10.1111/joa.13835.
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Embryonic and skeletal development of the albino African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis).

Shan Z , Li S , Yu C , Bai S , Zhang J , Tang Y , Wang Y , Irwin DM , Li J , Wang Z .

The normal stages of embryonic development for wild-type Xenopus laevis were established by Nieuwkoop and Faber in 1956, a milestone in the history of understanding embryonic development. However, this work lacked photographic images and staining for skeleton structures from the corresponding stages. Here, we provide high-quality images of embryonic morphology and skeleton development to facilitate studies on amphibian development. On the basis of the classical work, we selected the albino mutant of X. laevis as the observation material to restudy embryonic development in this species. The lower level of pigmentation makes it easier to interpret histochemical experiments. At 23°C, albino embryos develop at the same rate as wild-type embryos, which can be divided into 66 stages as they develop into adults in about 58 days. We described the complete embryonic development system for X. laevis, supplemented with pictures of limb and skeleton development that are missing from previous studies, and summarized the characteristics and laws of limb and skeleton development. Our study should aid research into the development of X. laevis and the evolution of amphibians.

PubMed ID: 36708289
PMC ID: PMC10184547
Article link: J Anat

Species referenced: Xenopus laevis
Genes referenced: tec
GO keywords: skeletal system development [+]

Article Images: [+] show captions
References [+] :
Bantle, Phase III interlaboratory study of FETAX. Part 3. FETAX validation using 12 compounds with and without an exogenous metabolic activation system. 1999, Pubmed, Xenbase