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XB-ART-58243
Elife January 1, 2021; 10
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The molecular basis of coupling between poly(A)-tail length and translational efficiency.

Xiang K , Bartel DP .


Abstract
In animal oocytes and early embryos, mRNA poly(A)-tail length strongly influences translational efficiency (TE), but later in development this coupling between tail length and TE disappears. Here, we elucidate how this coupling is first established and why it disappears. Overexpressing cytoplasmic poly(A)-binding protein (PABPC) in Xenopus oocytes specifically improved translation of short-tailed mRNAs, thereby diminishing coupling between tail length and TE. Thus, strong coupling requires limiting PABPC, implying that in coupled systems longer-tail mRNAs better compete for limiting PABPC. In addition to expressing excess PABPC, post-embryonic mammalian cell lines had two other properties that prevented strong coupling: terminal-uridylation-dependent destabilization of mRNAs lacking bound PABPC, and a regulatory regime wherein PABPC contributes minimally to TE. Thus, these results revealed three fundamental mechanistic requirements for coupling and defined the context-dependent functions for PABPC, which promotes TE but not mRNA stability in coupled systems and mRNA stability but not TE in uncoupled systems.

PubMed ID: 34213414
PMC ID: PMC8253595
Article link: Elife
Grant support: [+]

Species referenced: Xenopus laevis
Genes referenced: btg4 cytb gapdh pabpc1 tut4 tut7
GO keywords: translation [+]

GEO Series: GSE166544: NCBI

Article Images: [+] show captions